[37], West’s reputation grew apace with his body count. When the three units arrived at Dachau, they discovered more than 30,000 prisoners in the overcrowded camp. [43] FRANKLIN GURLEY, 399TH IN ACTION: WITH THE 100TH INFANTRY DIVISION  (1945). On April 28, the day before liberation, a train bearing about 40 or so railway cars arrived at the camp. [50] GURLEY, supra note 43. In March 1945, the "Thunderbird" division crossed the Rhine River and headed southward. [6]  This new chapter of the Biscari Massacre reveals innominate dimensions of the case and unknown applications of military justice during World War II. The 45th Infantry Division was recognized as a liberating unit by the US Army's Center of Military History and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in 1985. From there, he was assigned to the 18th Infantry Regiment of the Army’s 1st Infantry Division. 1, 1945), https://www.newspapers.com/clip/39339365/the-record-democrat/. In 1940, the "Thunderbird" division was reactivated and deployed in late June 1943 to North Africa. [15] Id. [27]   As the story goes, West took The Kid under his wing, shared what he learned from his earlier combat experiences, and “warned him not to move aroun’ too much” on the frontlines, “particularly when you figure there might be a sniper around”[28]  Unfortunately, The Kid became the victim of a German sniper almost immediately. [35] He then claimed to have eliminated an additional five Germans with his sniper rifle. JOHN M. KHOURY, LOVE COMPANY (2003). Id. Joe Wilson, 94, talks this month about his memories of World War II in the Oklahoma National Guard's 45th Infantry Division. The first mention of West’s earlier ser­vice appears in the Century Sentinel, which merely states that West had “been through the mill” with A Company, 180th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division. [19] James J. Weingartner, Massacre at Biscari: Patton and an American War Crime, HISTORIAN, Nov. 1989, at 38. Please Like and Follow Us ... World War I to the present. When US troops arrived in Dachau on April 29, they found 2,310 additional corpses on the train. The division was formed and federally recognized as a National Guard unit on 3 August 1923 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. That Soldier, Sergeant Horace Theodore West, was a thirty-five year-old Oklahoma native with thinning gray hair and skin “tanned the color of smoked ham.” During the interview, West told Vermillion (the UPI reporter) that his beloved Springfield rifle, equipped with a telescopic sight, was named after his wife Mabel. D.[56] Certificate of Discharge, Sergeant Horace T. West (U.S. Army, Jan. He received a promotion directly from private to sergeant within three weeks of joining L Company, and was featured on the front page of the 100th Infantry Division newspaper, the Century Sentinel. Sergeant West was a cook in A Company, 180th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division when it landed near Gela, Sicily, as part of Operation Husky. According to Tyson, when the replacement’s body was searched he was found not to be wearing any dog tags and ultimately was identified through a process of elimination by regimental staff. During World War II, the 45th Division fought in 511 days of combat awarding eight Medals of Honor. These units are the 1st Squadron, 180th Cavalry Regiment, 700th Brigade Support Battalion, 1st Battalion, 179th Infantry Regiment, 1st Battalion, 160th Field Artillery Regiment, 1st Battalion, 279th Infantry Regiment, and 45th Brigade Special Troops Battalion. 2 Jan- The Division fought defensively along the German border, withdrawing to the Moder River. [11] Id. The Biscari Massacre . Id. [45], The UPI story is also the origin of West’s unsubstantiated claims that he killed over one hundred German soldiers. Nonetheless, West quickly made a name for himself in his new unit as a sniper. Each car was loaded with emaciated human corpses . In each of them the floor of the car was covered with dead, emaciated bodies. Their bodies were left behind in various locations throughout Germany. *This article appeared in Army Lawyer, Issue 5, 2020.In February 1945, United Press International (UPI) war correspondent Robert Vermillion visited the positions of the 100th Infantry Division in Alsace—near Bitché, France. On 24 January 1945, Private West—along with twenty-nine other replacement Soldiers—was assigned to the depleted L Company, 399th Infantry Regiment, 100th Infantry Division. [36] Id. [59] HORACE T. WEST IN THE U.S., SOCIAL SECURITY DEATH INDEX, 1935-2014, ANCESTRY.COM, https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=try&db=ssdi&h=66536236 (search results available after signing in). [7]  On 14 July 1943, several days after the initial landings, West’s company was engaged near the airport at Biscari. [28] Id. On the afternoon of July 14, 1943, near the Biscari airport in Sicily, Captain John T. Compton, a company commander serving in the U.S. Army’s 45th Infantry Division, ordered his men to execute 36 prisoners of war (POWs). [20] Id. As a result, Major General Troy H. Middleton, the 45th Infantry Division commander, convened a general court-martial to try SGT West for "willfully, deliberately, feloniously, unlawfully" killing "thirty-seven prisoners of war, none of whose names are known, each of them a human being, by shooting them and each of them with a Thompson Sub-Machine gun."" In the first, Sergeant Horace West was in charge of a detail escorting prisoners of war back to a collection point. 2013), and an intellectual property attorney practicing in Philadelphia, PA. A number of Army documents and memoirs written by infantrymen in the European Theater of Operations shed light on what combat troops carried in their pockets, War Criminal Paroled: Horace T. West and the Final Chapter of the Biscari Massacre, https://www.newspapers.com/clip/39339365/the-record-democrat/, "A soldier in action drinks a lot of coffee" : The Popularity of the Breakfast K Ration, Etched in Purple: Separating Fact from Fiction. It replaced another previously used Native American symbol, a swastika, that was withdrawn when it became closely associated with the Nazi Party. Who we are Want to volunteer Schedule of events Venturing Crew. The following month, the division landed in Sicily, where it engaged Axis troops in combat. [33]  CENTURY SENTINEL, supra note 6 at 4. The 45th Infantry Division was formed in 1924 from National Guard units in the southwestern United States. Eagles, a decorated infantry commander who led the 45th Infantry Division in the battle for the Anzio beachhead in Italy, died Friday on 22-2-1988 at Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, Md. [29] When West arrived at the front and learned The Kid had been picked off by a sniper, he lamented it “went plumb against my liver.”[30]  West said that “the guys in the outfit were burned up…I went to the [commanding officer] and told him I could get that sniper if he’d give me a chance. West’s claims are disturbing and dubious. Div., 2–3 Sept. 1943), at 90; Off. Lieutenant Colonel Felix Sparks, who commanded the 45th Infantry Division troops, later recalled his first impressions of Dachau: The initial shock was experienced even before entering the camp. Casualty figures for the 45th Infantry Division, European theater of operations: The 45th Infantry Division gained its nickname, "Thunderbird" division, from the gold thunderbird. In the Dachau camp itself, an international committee composed of representatives of the various nationalities imprisoned there was established to organize resistance. [46] United Press Int’l, supra note 1. [56] There is no indication that he received any official reprimand, or otherwise ran afoul of the military justice system, after his parole in November 1944. The legend is fact,” repeating West’s likely embellishment and giving it additional authority. [38] KHOURY, supra note 32, app. [42] CENTURY SENTINEL, supra note 6. It had left Buchenwald four weeks earlier on April 7 filled with more than 5,000 prisoners. On April 29, 1945, soldiers of the 3rd Battalion, 157th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Felix L. Sparks, approaching the sprawling Dachau complex from the southwest, found 39 railway boxcars containing some 2,000 skeletal corpses parked on rail tracks just outside the complex itself. Scene from Netflix TV show "The Liberator" depicting 45th Infantry Division soldier battling German ... [+] troops in the Vosges mountains in January 1945. What Vermillion did not know, and could not have known, was that the seemingly pious West had only recently returned to combat after being imprisoned for over a year. The delegations of journalists and congressmen who had been viewing the Buchenwald concentration camp were quickly diverted to Dachau to see the camp. His intent was to interview a sniper—from Wagoner, Oklahoma, in L Company, 399th Infantry Regiment—who was credited with killing more than 130 German troops. [47] Vermillion, supra note 40. As I turned to look over the prison yard with unbelieving eyes, I saw a large number of dead inmates lying where they had fallen in the last few hours or days before our arrival. [38] In an article titled “Sniper Picks Off 17 Krauts to Square Things for ‘Kid,” his battalion commander—Lieutenant Colonel Bernard V. Lentz—praised West as “a better shot than any Nazi sniper we’ve ever encountered….I’d say he personally has pushed their line back at least 150 yards.”[39] It was shortly after that article’s publication that Vermillion, the UPI reporter, interviewed West. of the Staff Judge Advoc., Headquarters, 45th Infantry Div., Proceedings of Board of Med. In some of these cars there were more than enough to cover the floors. 45th infantry division: Outside the kitchen in which he served as mess sergeant, Staff Sergeant Marion Compassi, left, Muskogee, heard bees buzzing. [13] Id. The 180th Infantry Regiment (redesignated to Cavalry in 2008) saw action during World War I as the 142nd Infantry Regiment of the 36th Infantry Division (Texas and Oklahoma) and World War II and the Korean War as part of the 45th Infantry Division and again in Afghanistan and Iraq as part of the 45th Infantry Brigade. [53] Interview with Roy Sees (May 8, 2015). Brain tissue was splattered on the ground from one victim found nearby … . [24] Instead, he progressed through the Army Ground Forces replace­ment system, joined an infantry division fighting in France, and unexpectedly found himself appearing in his unit’s newspaper, the Army’s newspaper—titled The Stars and Stripes—and newspapers across America.[25]. On 19 October 1920, the Oklahoma State militia was organized as the 45th Infantry Division of the Oklahoma Army National Guard, and manned with troops from Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Patton belatedly agreed. . Fourteen soldiers were killed in fighting while … Immediately after Dachau's liberation, US Army authorities and other Allied representatives began treating the sick prisoners, implementing health and sanitary measures to curb the typhus epidemic, and bringing in tons of food to feed the starving prisoners. The bees accepted the hive. [18] Id. He wanted to fight in Germany, so African authorities gave him a Springfield sniper rifle and shipped him off to the [European Theater of Operations].”[43], The UPI story describes how West had “been shooting Germans, running, sitting, and standing since his old division, the 45th, landed in Sicily [on] July 10, 1943,” but missed combat in Italy because “he was assigned to the 100th division as a rifle company headquarters handyman.”[44] But, the 100th Infantry Division had not even arrived in the European Theater of Operations until 20 October 1944; and, West’s assignment to the division did not occur until late January 1945. As Allied troops moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Nazi Germany, they found tens of thousands of concentration camp prisoners in deplorable conditions.e Malnutrition and disease were rampant, and corpses lay unburied. [52] “He was always brag­ging about killing Germans, whether he killed any or not was kind of a joke around the company because there was no way of proving whether he shot anybody, because there was nobody there but him….He was by himself, alone.”[53], On 1 April 1945, West was evacuated to a rear hospital due to an illness—possibly hepatitis—which prevented his return to his company before the end of the war in Europe. He also would have been safe from capture and the opportunity to divulge the events of the Biscari Massacre. In addition to burying the dead, the Allied forces attempted to help and comfort the survivors with food, clothing and medical assistance. To the Soldiers in L Company who never had the chance to meet or even see him, he “was like a ghost. [42]  The 399th Infantry’s regimental history offers what is, at best, an oversimplification: “West had fought in Sicily with the 45th. [16] Id. [23], Previous scholarship traced West’s service to his parole and subsequent hon­orable discharge, but it skipped an entire chapter of his story. In Sicily, on July,14th,1943, in what came to be known as the Biscari massacre, troops from this division murdered 73, mostly Italian, POWs on two occasions. The battalion’s executive officer, Major Roger Denman, ordered West and several other American Soldiers to escort forty-eight German and Italian POWs to the rear for questioning. Just days before, about 2,000 inmates evacuated on a death march from the Flossenbürg concentration camp had arrived at Dachau and the SS guards had forced almost 7,000 Dachau inmates to move southward. Nevertheless, the Army officials in charge of this camp advised us that there were 50 of these cars in this 1 train and that at least 100 of these civilians had been jammed into each car . We saw many dead bodies on the ground. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW On April 29, 1945, three US Army divisions converged on the camp: the 42nd Infantry, the 45th Infantry, and the 20th Armored. His unit fought more … After marching the POWs a mile, West halted the group and selected eight or nine to report to the regimental intelligence officer. Robert Vermillion, Missus Never Misses, Mabel Takes Care of the Sergeant, STARS & STRIPES (London), Mar. . He then borrowed a Thompson sub-machine gun from his company’s first sergeant, and told him he was going to kill the “sons of bitches.”[8]  He instructed his comrades to “turn around if you don’t want to see it.”[9]  West murdered the disarmed POWs at close range, then reloaded and began firing single shots into the hearts of the POWs still moving. Frank Sheeran was born in Darby, Pennsylvania, a small working-class borough on the outskirts of Philadelphia. [36]  On another day, West was credited with the dispatch of fourteen German soldiers and a possible wounding or killing of six more while sniping and acting as a forward ob­server for his company’s mortars. [5] In this case, the new scholarship is based on the author’s personal research. [37] Id. News of Dachau's liberation spread swiftly. History main page Organization Campaigns and battles Medal of Honor Citations. His brother sought information from the War Department on details of his brother’s confinement. [50] Furthermore, according to Roy Sees—who served with West in L Company, 399th Infantry—there were no witnesses to many of his “kills”: With regard to the claim that West was responsible for the deaths of 150 German soldiers, Sees was not convinced. [60] The “new research” listed here was conducted by the author. This new research[60] adds a new dimension to the narrative of the Biscari Massacre and how its legacy must be interpreted. Born in Germany, he and his family came to the United States in 1940; his father was in Buchenwald in 1938, but was released after four weeks. He murdered thirty-seven Italian and German prisoners of war (POWs) in an incident now known as The Biscari Massacre. [6] Sniper Picks off 17 Krauts to Square Things for Kid, CENTURY SENTINEL, Feb. 24, 1945, at 1 [hereinafter CENTURY SENTINEL]. Approximately 32,000 prisoners were liberated; 300 SS camp guards were quickly neutralized." As the 45th Infantry Division completed its drive on Munich, the unit was ordered to liberate the Dachau concentration camp. The scene near the entrance to the confinement area numbed my senses. The retired officer, who lived in Washington, was 93 years old. . [12]  Patton initially dismissed the accounts and told Bradley that the incidents would “make a stink in the press." [22] Id. In size, these cars were of the small European type, which, when used for the movement of troops, would never accommodate more than 40 men. History, 2010) and the Drexel University School of Law (J.D. Quickly he ordered Private First Class Phullip Meyers, right, Williamsport, PA, to make a hive. [35] Id. Eagles, a decorated infantry commander who led the 45th Infantry Division in the battle for the Anzio beachhead in Italy, died Friday on 22-2-1988 at Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, Md. History of the 45th Infantry Division: Home page Table of contents. The 325th Medical Battalion’s March unit journal (the 325th was the 100th Infantry Division’s organic medical unit) states that it was a major problem in the division, and the report of the following month notes that while the number of hepatitis cases had decreased considerably, it still warranted mention. [11]  The same day, West’s company commander, Captain John T. Compton, had also been involved in the killing of thirty-six POWs near Biscari. D; CENTURY SENTINEL,supra note 6, at 1. Also, it is possible that West referred to the replacement only as “The Kid” because neither he, nor anyone else in the company, knew the Soldier’s name. US soldiers killed German prisoners of war and surrendering SS soldiers at the Dachau concentration camp on April 29, 1945 during World War II.This is known as the Dachau Massacre. . It is important to note that West’s version of events differs from the memories of other L Company Soldiers. [54] 100TH DIVISION ASSOCIATION NEWSLETTER, HOLIDAYISSUE 1985, at 9. In Bradley's 45th Infantry Division, a National Guard formation which Patton had encouraged before the invasion to make itself known as the 'killer division', a sergeant and a captain massacred more than seventy unarmed prisoners. [14], West was tried first. For example, John Khoury in his book, Love Company, approximates the death of the replacement as late February–not January. In two incidents on July 14, 1943, American soldiers of the 45th Infantry Division summarily executed German and Italian prisoners of war. [55] Despite the 448 days he spent in confinement, he had enough “points” under the Army’s discharge system to be returned to the United States in October 1945, and was honorably discharged in January of the following year. However, Bradley ignored Patton and pressed for charges to be brought against both Compton and West. Patton. Following his release, West was far from inconspicuous. However, Tyson believes the replacement’s death was because of West’s sniping, and not the reason for it. It may only serve as an example of the imperfect application of military justice in the American Army during World War II; however, it also illustrates, in the words of War Department officials, the “savagery that is war.”[61]. [32] CENTURY SENTINEL, supra note 6, at 1, 4. Our officials advised us that many of the others who had survived the trip had died since in the camp, and many more, although still alive, were starved beyond redemption. When the 45th Division first formed its members wore a red square patch on their left shoulder, inside the patch was a yellow swastika, worne for good Luck. [10]  The bodies of the executed POWs were quickly discovered and brought to the attention of II Corps Commander, Lieutenant General Omar Bradley. The 45th Infantry Division Association is creating a red brick "Path of Remembrance", surrounding the paved walkway, and the flagpole, in the center of the parade ground, at the front of the Museum. Claimed to have eliminated an additional five Germans with his body count the... Incidents deeply troubled Bradley, who reported them to Seventh Army commander General! Chance to meet or even see him, he “ was Like a ghost of... 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